Describe causation of crime theories and how they relate to criminal behavior. Describe the common models for society to determine which acts are considered criminal. Explain how causation theories of crime affect society.
In criminal law causation is defined as an action from which the specific injury or other effect
arose and is combined with a state of mind to compare the elements of guilt. It is only applicable where
a result has been achieved and is immaterial with regard to attempt another crime.
Biological and Psychological theories put the blame for criminal activity on physical or mental
conditions. The Biological theory states that individuals commit crimes due to their genetic,
biochemical, or neurological deficiencies. While the Psychological theory states that individuals
commit crimes because of an imbalance of personality developed in early childhood.
Social conflict theory states that individuals commit crimes when the law, controlled by the rich
and powerful, defines their behavior as illegal.
Demonic theory states that the cause of the crime is due to demonic figures; the devil, demons, spirits, etc.
Classical theory stresses punishment and deterrence. It states that individuals will weigh the
pros and cons before committing a criminal act. Classical theory is also known as the free-will
Crime causation theories vary greatly. Various individuals believe different reasons for why
individuals commit criminal acts. Some of the reasons are believed to be poverty, negative reactions,
substance abuse, mental health disease/disorders, human characteristics, and poor upbringing.
Society uses common models to determine what a criminal act is. Our justice system has two
models; consensus model and conflict model. The criminal justice system (CJS) uses the consensus
model. The majority of society shares the same morals and beliefs. This model works on assumption....
References: Schmalleger, F. (2011). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century (11th Ed.). Prentice Hall.
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