Introduction to the Criminal Justice System.
Identify and discuss three examples of important criminal justice legislative changes since 1990s.
The key aim of this assignment is to discuss and identify the important changes of the criminal justice system legislation since early 1990s to 2003, and how these changes have reduce criminality in United Kingdom through the help of a number of agencies. There have been many important legislation changes in the criminal justice system since in the 1990s, but some of these changes provided numerous reforms to sentencing and create a systematic approach. There are three legislative changes that could be consider in the criminal justice system today, which is the Criminal Justice Act 1991, Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, and finally the Criminal Justice Act 2003 (Davies, et al. 2010).
Criminal Justice can be defined as a reputable governments system or society’s formal responses to those who violate state laws with the help of agencies such as the police, the courts, the prison service, the crown prosecution service and the national probation service working together to deliver the criminal justice process by undertake action and decisions to prevent more crime (Davies, et al. 2010). The criminal Justice helps to fight crimes and brought to justice those who commit a crime and punish the lawbreakers. Overall criminal justice plays a huge roll in many societies. Criminal justice system consist of three main parts: (a) Legislative, which create law; (b) Adjudication, the court interpret the law; (c) Correction, government agencies that administer a jurisdiction’s jails, prisons, probation and parole. These three agencies operate together both under the rule of law, and as the foremost importance means of maintaining the rule of law of society.
The Criminal Justice Act (CJA 1991) is one of the major public servicers in England, with some of the main changes in the criminal justice Act 1991, was carried out by an unprecedented number of planning, research, consultation and training, but the Hampshire magistrates’ courts carried out a unit fine and extreme training to those that enforce the new Act. However, regardless the research, planning and consultation programmed went in the Act, the Home Secretary implement new amendment in the Act. The Criminal Justice Act 1991 came to force since October 1992, during Kenneth Clarke, he was the Home Secretary who abolished the unit fine system. A new Legislation was added to the Criminal Justice Bill already before parliament (Davies, et al., 2010).
The White Paper, Crime, Justice and Protecting the Public (Home Office 1990a) was form as a far-reaching systematic transformed the sentence, which reflects on shifts in penal philosophy and sentencing policies, and to improve the consistency of the current sentencing policy and for sentences to be proportionate to the offense (Davies, et al., 2010:30). At that time, it was understood that the best way to accomplish this was by emphasize the already established sentencing framework of just deserts. The perception of “just deserts” was widely criticized due to the fact that sentencers were unable to issue a sentence that reflected the frequency or history of the offender. After that, the Criminal Justice Act 1993 (CJA 1993) abolished Section 29 of CJA 1991, and allowed the court to consider all offences before the court, and force these provisions have been repealed and replaced with new criteria for justifying the imposition of custody both for young offenders and for adult (Stockdale and Casale, 1992; Wasik, 1990: p.128).
The CJA 1991 also implemented the key changes by use of unit fines. These unit fines are when sentencers allocated points based on the seriousness of the committed offenses. These points also took into account the offender’s income and finances, for example, assets which ultimately resulted in a specific amount for the final fine. This...
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