IMPACTING FACTORS ON HUMAN SOCIAL SERVICE DELIVERY
SOCIO CULTURAL FACTORS
Socio cultural factors are norms, values, beliefs, material and non material objects that are passed on from one generation to another in any given society .Socio cultural factors are crucial in any developmental aspect of a community.(Noyo Ndangwe p230) There is considerable interest in analyzing these factors that are impacting on human social service delivery and these are economic, religion, political and socio-cultural factors which are of special significance because of their tendency to shape the context or foundation for the operation of any other set of factors that operate upon human social service delivery. In this regard, we will try to look at one factor, that is, Socio cultural factor how it is impacting on human social service delivery. First and foremost would like to define the key concepts this assignment. 1. Socio means interaction.
2. Culture means the beliefs, customs, practices, and social behaviour of a particular nation or people.
3. Factors mean something that contributes to or has an influence on the outcome of something.
4 Impacting means to have an immediate and strong effect on something or somebody.
5 Social Service These are welfare programs aimed at enriching human life 6 Delivery means taking something to somebody.
The first to way to discuss this will be to try to analyse how socio-cultural factors affect the performance of Primary Health Care. There is now a large body of literature on the social and cultural determinants of health which ‘refer to both the specific features and pathways by which societal conditions affect health. The WHO has, for example, identified a number of socio cultural factors and conditions. The list of factors includes (i) cultural beliefs and taboos, (ii) gender inequality, and (iii) the urban – rural divide. The socio-cultural factors impacting on health will differ between societies and even within sub-cultures within the same society. Thus the factors in a developed society will tend to differ from those that are operative in a backward, underdeveloped society. Factors such as urban-rural migration, unemployment, education, gender inequality, lack of money, transportation, distance to health facility, cultural inhibition, fear of going alone to health facilities, inability to make informed choices and the need to obtain permission from some authority figure such as the husband in the case of some married women have been cited (Social Determinants of Health: Nigerian Perspective: 2005). Social cultural taboos and social meanings attached to certain diseases and their causes are other socio cultural factors that are impacting on service delivery. Cultural beliefs and taboos
Cultural beliefs and taboos impact upon the performance of the Primary Health Care in several ways. First, they shape forms of behaviour that lead to certain health outcomes. As an example, consider beliefs about fertility and family planning. People living in rural areas tend to want to have more children and not to want to use the more modern methods of family control (PHC, WHO: 2004). This has implication for population growth, the incidence of child and maternal mortality and the number in the population seeking access to health care. As another example, we can also consider the case of beliefs about HIV/AIDS. Quoting a UNESCO Report, Kickbusch et al (2002:4-5) have observed that in some parts of Africa, ‘people believe that clean and well-dressed individuals cannot become infected or that having sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure AIDS’. Ladipo et al (2003) have also reported a study on the perceptions of Gate keepers, the custodians of cultural beliefs and moral norms, about sexuality and HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. Using in-depth interviews with teachers, media representatives, religious, political and traditional leaders and focus group discussions among parents the study...
Bibliography: 1. Dr. Festus Iyayi, (2009), Socio cultural factors impacting upon Primary Health Care in Nigeria, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
2. Global Health Watch (2004) Global Health Action, edited by Whyte, A., McCoy, D and Rowson, M, Russell Press
3. Noyoo. N, (2000), Social Policies and Social Services in Zambia. UNZA Publishers, Lusaka, Zambia.
4. Oxford advanced learners dictionary (2002).
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