1. What are the competing expectations for probation and parole are often made scapegoats? Americans want greater protection from crime while insisting that efforts to afford this protection do not jeopardize treasured constitutional rights. We want a system that deters would be miscreants an incapacitates those not deterred without imposing significant tax dollars . 3.How does the abolition of parole release impact on probation? the abolishing of parole may increase the number of people on probation, for example Virgina abolished parole release in 1995 and the number of persons placed on probation more then double. 5. Why can criminal justice in the United States be referred to as a system that is not systematic? There is a lack of joint planning and budgeting, or even systematic consultation, among the various agencies responsible for criminal justice. 7.Why can't it be determined whether a probationer or parolee has been rehabilitated by the absence of a new conviction? Consider that most reported crimes do not result in an arrest and conviction, futhermore, national crime victimization surveys reveal that most crimes are simply not reported to the police. 9. How did the classical concept of a social contract challenge disparate justice? The disparate practices of meeting out justice were forcefully challenged in the eighteenth century with the advent of classicalism. During this era, philosophers, such as Montesquieu and Voltaire, spoke out aganist the French penal code and inhumane and ineqitable punishments. Jean Rousseau and Cesare Beccaria argued for a radical concept of justice based on equality. At a time when laws and law enforcement were unjust and disparate and punishments was often brultal, they demanded justice based on equality and punishment that was humane and proportionate to the offence. 11. How does neoclassicalism in criminal justice differ from classicalism? classicalism argued that law should respect neither rank...
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