refugees in chad

Topics: Refugee, School, Internally displaced person Pages: 21 (7453 words) Published: October 10, 2013

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Introduction
Chad is the fifth poorest country in the world. The country suffers from a poor economy, poor governance, a lack of infrastructure and political instability.Chad is a landlocked country in North Central Africa surrounded by Libya to the north, Sudan to the west, the Central Republic of Africa to the south, Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria to the west. The country is about three times the size of California with a population of about 9,885,561. The capital is N’Djamena. The other major cities are Abeche, Sahr and Moundou. The north of the country is desert and mountainous. The climate is dry throughout the year with a wide range of temperature between the day and the night. The center is a broad arid plain. The climate is semi-desertic, hot and dry with a brief rainy season from mid-June to mid-September. The south is fertile lowlands and grasslands. The climate is tropical: warm and more humid with seasonal rains from late May to early October (Kirk, 2009 ). Chad has a diverse population with about 200 different ethnic groups. The population in the north and the center of the country is predominantly Muslim. The population in the south is predominantly Christian or Animist. The official languages are French and Arabic. However, there are more than 120 spoken Chadian languages and dialects. Arabic is commonly spoken in the North; Sango and Sara in the South. Sango is also the official language of CAR. Socio-economic context

Chad is an extremely poor country. It ranked 171 out of 177 on the United Nations 2006 Human Development Index (Kirk, 2009 ). Majority of the population lives in poverty. One out of 5 children will not reach the age of 5. The majority of the population relies on subsistence farming and livestock for survival. Unfortunately, the agricultural output is unstable due to the difficult natural conditions (recurrent droughts, pest infestations) and the political situation (tribal conflicts, confrontations between armed opposition groups and governmental forces) and the presence of Sudanese rebels in the east. The manufacturing and industrial sectors are weak. The population lacks skills and education. In fact, more than half of the population under 15 is illiterate.The infrastructure is inadequate. There is a lack of access to basic resources such as clean water, health services, education, and energy in most of Chad. As examples, there is only 1 doctor for every 28,000 people, only 3 out of 10 people have access to potable water and electricity is available to only 1% of the population (Kirk, 2009 ). Political situation in Chad.

The head of state is President Idriss Deby Itno. President Deby seized power from his predecessor in 1990 with the help of Libya. He has been in power ever since even though he has faced numerous coup d’état, the most recent in April 2006 (Kirk, 2009 ). His administration continues to be threatened by armed opposition groups located in the east. In October 2007 Libya brokered a peace accord between the armed opposition groups and the government. The accord was short lived and fighting resumed in December 2007. In January 2008 the armed opposition groups agreed to join forces. President Deby launched an air attack on their camps inside Sudan, which he accuses of supporting the Chadian armed opposition groups. Sudan, on the other hand, is accusing Chad of supporting the Sudanese rebel groups. The relation between Chad and Sudan is tense. This has rendered humanitarian assistance extremely difficult in the east and has also delayed the arrival of the Eurofor troops originally planned for November 2007.

Freedom of speech and press has been curtailed since time imemorial. The government has started a crackdown against journalists reporting on the conflict in east Chad. Several reporters were arrested as well as the leader of the opposition liberal party for criticizing...

References: Creed, C and Morpeth, R, (2009). Review of Daniel, J Mega-schools, technology and teachers: achieving education for all, Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, Routledge forthcoming Feb 2011
Daniel, J. (2009). Mega-schools, technology and teachers: achieving education for all, Oxford: Routledge
DiPaola, M. F. and Walther-Thomas, C. (2003). Principals and special education: The critical role of school leaders (COPPSE Document No. 1B-7). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, Center on Personnel Studies in Special Education.
INEE, (2004). Minimum standards for education in emergencies, chronic crises and early reconstruction: a handbook, Geneva: Inter-Agency for Education in Emergencies
Kirk, J. (2009). Certification counts: recognizing the learning attainments of displaced and refugee students, Paris: IIEP
UNICEF, (2009).Open and distance learning for basic education in Eastern Chad: its potential for hard-to-reach children and children in conflict and disaster areas, Kathmandu: UNICEF ROSA.
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