The human brain is made up of many different cortexes, and each cortex is associated with the different functions of the body. The cerebral cortex is the primary area of the nervous system. This is where our conscious mind is found. This area allows us to be aware of ourselves and our sensations, which includes communication, memory, comprehension and to be able to initiate voluntary movement. The cerebral cortex has three kids of areas, the motor area, the sensory area and the association area. Each hemisphere is associated with the opposite side of the body. For example the left hemisphere is associated with the right side of the body, and vice versa for the left side of the body. The motor functions are mapped into functions in an upside down fashion. Where the top of the map starts at the toes and goes all the way down to the head. The sensory cortex is located just posterior to the primary motor cortex. The neurons receive information from the general area in the skin and muscles and then the neurons identify the body region being stimulated, which is called spatial discrimination. The mapping of the sensory cortex is also in the upside down fashion, starting with the feet and ending with the head. . Even though the hemispheres are symmetrical, they are not equal in function. There is not one functional area of the cortex that acts alone. The foot motor area is going to be very close to the foot sensory area, and it is like that throughout the entire map. (Marieb, 2007)
When nerve fibers are damaged this can be serious because generally mature neurons do not divide. If damage to a nerve is severe or close to the cell body the entire neuron may die as well as other neurons that are normally stimulated by that particular nerve, may die as well. However if the cell body remains intact, cut or compressed the axons of the peripheral nerves can regenerate. However post trauma axon regrowth never exactly matches what existed before the injury, and a lot of the...
Cited: Marieb, H. (2007). Human Anatomy & Physiology, Seventh addition. In K. H. Elaine N Marieb, Human Anatomy & Physiology, Seventh addition (pp. 438-439, 499-500). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.
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