Self defence

Topics: Criminal law, Common law, Law Pages: 33 (12925 words) Published: February 16, 2014
table of contents

TABLE OF CASES
1. Amar Singh v. State, AIR 1968 Raj. 11.
1. Baburao Vithal Survade v. State of Gujarat, 1972 Cr. L.J. 1574. 1. Bedford v. R., [1988] A.C. 130.
1. Bishan Singh v. Emperor, AIR 1929 Lah. 443.
1. Chhagan v. State, AIR 1954 Sau. 34.
1. Deo Narain v. State of U.P., (1973) 1 SCC 347.
1. Emperor v. Ashrafuddin, 1942 Cri. L.J. 450.
1. Fisher, [1987] Crim. L.R. 334 (CA).
1. Ghansham Dass v. State (Delhi Admin.), AIR 1979 SC 44.
1. Gurbachan Singh v. State of Haryana, AIR 1974 SC 496.
1. Hari Meghji v. State of Gujarat, AIR 1983 SC 488.
1. In re Erasi Subba Reddi, AIR 1943 Mad. 492.
1. Jackson, [1984] Crim. L.R. 674.
1. Jai Dev v. State of Punjab, AIR 1963 SC 612.
1. Julien,[1969] 2 All E.R. 856.
1. Jumman v. State of Punjab, AIR 1957 SC 469.
1. Jurha Chamar v. Surit Ram, 7 Cri L.J. 49.
1. Karamat Husain v. Emperor, AIR 1938 Lah. 269.
1. Keso Sahu v. Saligram, 1977 Cri.LJ 1725.
1. Kishan v. The State, AIR 1974 SC 244.
1. Kripa Ram v. Emperor, 1947 Cri.L.J. 503.
1. Ladha Gova v. State, AIR 1951 Sau 1.
1. Mir Dad v. The Crown, ILR 7 Lahore 21.
1. Mohd. Khan v. State of M.P, 1972 Cri.L.J.661.
1. Mohd. M.S. Hameed v. State of Kerala, AIR 1980 SC 108.
1. Mohd. Rafi v. Emperor, AIR 1947 Lah. 375.
1. Mukhtiar Singh and anr. v. State of Punjab, 1975 Cri.L.J. 132. 1. Mukhtiar Singh v. State, 1971 Cri. L.J. 1049.
1. Munney Khan v. State of M.P., AIR 1971 SC 1491.
1. Munshi Ram v. Delhi Administration, AIR 1968 SC 702.
1. Nanhu Khan v. State of Bihar, AIR 1971 SC 2143.
1. Nga Chit Tin v. The King, 1939 Cri. L.J. 725.
1. Palmer v. The Queen, [1971] 1 All E.R. 1077 (PC).
1. Panjab Rao v. Emperor, 1946 Cri. L.J. 111.
1. Paras Ram v. Rex, AIR 1949 All. 274.
1. R. v. Fraser(1980), 55 C.C.C.(2d) 503.
1. Ram Lal Singh v. Emperor, 22 W.R. (Cr.) 51.
1. Ramesh v. State, AIR 1969 Tripura 53.
1. Ramzani v. State, AIR 1925 All. 319.
1. Ranjit Singh v. State, AIR 1957 Punj. 306.
1. Smt. Sandhya Rani Bardhan v. State, 1977 Cri. L.J. 245.
1. State of M.P. v. Saligram, 1971 Jab. L.J. 292.
1. State of U.P. v. Pussu, 1983 All. C.R.R. 355 (SC).
1. State of U.P. v. Ram Swarup, AIR 1974 SC 1570.
1. State v. Dhiria Bhavji, AIR 1963 Guj. 78.
1. Tara Chand v. State of Haryana, AIR 1971 SC 1891.
1. Thangavel v. State, 1981 Cri. L.J. 210.
1. Vidhya Singh v. State of Madhya Pradesh, AIR 1971 SC 1857. 1. Vijay Pal and ors. v. State, 1984 Cri. L.J.188.
1. Williams, [1987] All E.R. 411.
1. Yogendra Morarji v. State of Gujarat, AIR 1980 SC 660.

INTRODUCTION
In the state of nature it was the survival of the fittest, the principle of self-preservation guiding much of human behaviour. A man could kill another in self-defence, this being an inherent natural right. This was almost an unrestricted right that the ‘Law of Nature’ gave to each individual. Today, the liberal democratic state still recognises this inalienable right of an individual to protect himself and his property in the face of danger.1 This departs from the monopoly over violence which the state has retained in the sense that under every other circumstance, it is the state alone that is justified in using force, or punishing the wrongdoer.2 The law relating to self-defence is thus a mere extension of the principle of necessity, the test for a reasonable exercise of self-defence being a clear and present danger, the imminence of harm to either person or property, and the consequent necessity to protect the self or one’s property. This is in consonance with a basic aim of criminal law which is to safeguard conduct that is without fault from condemnation as criminal.3 The right of self-defence is one which has come down from the ancient law-givers. Manu enjoined to resort to arms in self-defence4 and the root of this concept may be found even in Anglo-American jurisprudence.5 It is thus an indefeasible right which may be altered, but can never be abrogated. Nature prompts a man who is struck to resist, and he is...

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Ames, James Bar, “Law and Morals”, Harv. L. Rev., Vol. 22, (1908), p. 98.
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Mahoney, Richard, “The Presumption of Innocence-A New Era”, Canadian Bar Review, Vol. 67, (1988) p. 1.
March, Jenifer, “Women’s self-defence under Washington Law”, Washington Law Review, Vol
Robinson, Paul, “A Functional Analysis of Criminal Law”, Northwestern Unversity Law Review, Vol. 88, No. 3, (1994), p. 857.
Robinson, Paul, “Criminal Law Defences: A Systematic Analysis”, Columbia Law Review, Vol. 82, (1982), p. 199.
Sornarajan, M., “Excessive Self-Defence in Commonwealth Law”, (1972) I.C.L.Q. 758.
OTHER SOURCES
Chambers 20th Century Dictionary (1972).
Law Lexicon (1971), Vol. II.
The Model Penal Code, (USA, 1962).
The Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford, 1961).
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