unfair policy

Topics: Black people, African American, Negro Pages: 11 (1806 words) Published: October 17, 2013
By George M. Zinkhan, Keith K. Cox and Jae W, Hong

Changes in Stereotypes: Blacks
And Whites in Magazine Advertisements
More ads have blacks
and more blacks are
in professional rotes.

coverage increased through the 1960s, but
then tended to remain at a constant or
slightly increasing level through the 1970s.
For example, Stempel' found that the percentage of ads containing black models Since the early 1960s, civil rights organ- increased from 0.6% in I960 to 2.7% in izations have requested that advertisers

1970. A content analysis by Cox also indiinclude more black models in television cated that the percentage of black models and print advertising. By studying the por- had increased from the early 1950s to the trayal of blacks in advertising it is possible middle 1960s.^ A similar study by Kassarto determine the image of blacks that these jian found that the frequency of "black ads present to Americans. Two issues are ads" actually decreased during the 1950s but then increased again during the middle

relevant: I) what is the frequency of black
1960s.' The net effect of this U-shaped
exposure? and 2) what are the social and
economic contexts within which blacks relationship was that the frequency of are depicted? These two issues are investi- black models found in 1965 was not significantly different from the frequency in gated here through a content analysis of

1946. A reanalysis of Kassarjian's data by
274 issues of Life. Time. Ladies Home
Journal. Saturday Evening Post and New Wheatley indicated that advertisers were Yorker during the period 1983-84. These less discriminatory than initially reported.* Among the studies of the 1970s, Bush,

results are compared with those from two
previous time periods: 1949-50 and 1967- Resnik and Stern' found that the percentage of black ads had not increased signifi68. Thus, the purpose of the present re- cantly beyond the 2.14% that Cox had reported for the 1968-69 period. When

search is to determine whether there has
investigating Life magazine's coverage of
been any change in the frequency of
black Americans, Sentman found that
appearance of black role models in general
there was an increase in the visibility of
magazine ads since the 1960s. In addition,
black occupational roles are examined
and compared to those of previous per' Guido H. Stempel III. 'Visibility of Blacks in News and News-Picture Magazines.' Journalism Quarterly. 48:337.39
iods.
(Sumtner 1971).

Background
Frequency of Btack E.xposure. With
respect to frequency, it appears that black
Dr. Cox is professor and chairman. Dr. Zinkhan is
assistant professor and Jae W. Hong is a graduate
student in the Marketing Department at the University
of Houston. University Park. The authors would like
to acknowledge the helpful comments of Valerie Blair
and Betsv Gelb.

568

' Keith K Cox. 'Changes in Steitotypinf of Negroes and
Whites in Magazine Advertisements." Pubtic Opinion Qttarfrr/r. 33:603-6(1969-70). ' Harold H. Kassarjian.'The Negro and American Advenising: I946-I96S.' Journal of Marketing Research. 6:29-39 (1969).

• John J. Wheatley. 'The Use of Bucks in Advertising.'
Journal of Marketing Research. 8:390-393 (August 1971).
> Ronald F Bush. Alan J. Resnik and Bruce L. Stem. 'A
Content Analysis of Ihc Portrayal of Black S^odels in Miga/ine Advertising.** in Richard Bagozzi. rr. «/.. eds.. Markeiing in the SO's Changes and Challenges (Chicago: Amencan Marketing
Association Conference Proceedings. 1980). pp. 484-487

569

Changes in Stereotypes
blacks when moving from 1967 to 1972;
but even in this latter period, the highest
level of coverage remained at less than
3%.' In a study of a more recent period,
Reid and Vanden Bergh found that
between 1968 and 1977 less than 1% of
introductory magazine ads contained
blacks.^ Also, there was no clear trend
(either increasing or decreasing) in the use
of black models for introductory ads. One
investigation by...
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